Staphylococcus epidermidis - MegaMicro

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Staphylococcus epidermidis

Micro > Bacteriology > Gram-positive bacteria > Gram-Positive Cocci > Staphylococci
I.                    Structure
a.       Gram positive cocci, arranged in grape-like clusters
II.                  Pathobiology
a.       Physiology: facultative anaerobe
                i.      Can use glucose, sucrose, and lactose
b.      Virulence factors:
                i.      Relatively avirulent
                ii.      Adhesin Polysaccharide
1.       Promotes adherence and allows the organism the ability to form  biofilms on inserted devices
2.       It produces a polysaccharide slide layer which is key to adherence
a.       Slime layer also interferes with phagocytosis.
                iii.      S. epidermidis often resistant to antibiotics such as methicillin, amoxicillin and penicillin

III.                Epidemiology
a.       Normal human flora
b.      Found on skin and mucosal surfaces

IV.                Laboratory diagnosis
a.       Catalase positive
b.      Coagulase negative
c.       Non-hemolytic
d.      Sensitive to novobiocindistinguishes it from S. saprophyticus

V.                  Disease manifestations
a.       An Opportunistic Pathogen
            i.      Nosocomial that is associated with infections of catheters, shunts and prosthetic devices and resulting in endocarditis (especially during heart valve replacement), wound infections, urinary tract infections

VI.             Treatment: oxacillin or vancomycin (for oxacillin resistant strains). Often required is removal of foreign body as antibiotics are ineffective against the biofilm.

VII.            Prevention: hand-washing has been shown to reduce the spread of infection
Related concepts

Key Words
Skin
Novobiocin sensitive
prosthetic device infections


 
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